1The Institute for College Access & Success,
“Student Debt and the Class of 2013” (Oakland, CA: The Institute for College Access & Success, 2014).
2United States Department of Education,
“Estimated Outstanding Balance and Number of Borrowers with Outstanding Direct Loan or FFEL Loan as of January 2015, by State” (Washington, DC: United States Department of Education, 2015).
3David A. Bergeron, Elizabeth Baylor and Joe Valenti,
“Resetting the Trillion-Dollar Student-Loan Debt Problem” (Washington, DC: Center for American Progress, 2013).
4William Gale, Benjamin Harris, Bryant Renaud and Katherine Rodihan,
“Student Loans Rising: An Overview of Causes, Consequences, and Policy Options” (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2014).
“In Debt and Alone? Examining the Causal Link between Student Loans and Marriage”, working paper (Greensboro, NC: University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 2013).
6Michael Greenstone and Adam Looney,
“Regardless of the Cost, College Still Matters” (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2012).
7Beth Akers and Matthew M. Chingos,
“Student Loan Safety Nets: Estimating the Costs and Benefits of Income-Based Repayment” (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2014).
8David Langdon, George McKittrick, David Beede, Beethika Khan and Marks Doms,
“STEM: Good Jobs Now and for the Future” (Washington, DC: United States Department of Commerce, 2011).
9United States Joint Economic Committee,
“STEM Education: Preparing for the Jobs of the Future” (Washington, DC: United States Congress Joint Economic Committee, 2012).
10Metropolitan Policy Program,
“America’s Advanced Industries: What They Are, Where They Are, And Why They Matter” (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2015).
Nicole Smith and Michelle Melton, “STEM State-Level Analysis” (Washington, DC: Center on Education and the Workforce, 2011).
12Metropolitan Policy Program.
13National Science Foundation,
Science and Engineering Indicators: 2014 State Data Tool (Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, 2015).
14Thomas L. Harnisch,
“Student Loan Forgiveness Programs: An Evolving Workforce Development Tool” (Washington, DC: American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2009).
15Donald E. Pathman, Thomas R. Konrad, Tonya S. King, Donald H. Taylor and Gary G. Koch,
16United States Joint Economic Committee.
“What Shortages? The Real Evidence About the STEM Workforce,” Issues in Science and Technology (Summer 2013): 58-67.
18National Science Foundation,
“Revisiting the STEM Workforce: A Companion to Science and Engineering Indicators 2014” (Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, 2015).